Establishing the Production of Male Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae for a Controlled Human Infection Model
To accelerate the development of novel vaccines for schistosomiasis, we set out to develop a human model for Schistosoma mansoni infection in healthy volunteers. During natural infections, female schistosomes produce eggs that give rise to morbidity. Therefore, we produced single-sex, male Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for human infection without egg production and associated pathology. Cercariae were produced in their intermediate snail hosts in accordance with the principles of good manufacturing practice (GMP). The application of GMP principles to an unconventional production process is a showcase for the controlled production of complex live challenge material in the European Union or under Food and Drug Administration guidance.