Prevalence of Trachoma in Four Local Government Areas of Jigawa State, Nigeria

31 Dec 2018
Mpyet C, Muhammad N, Adamu MD, Umar MM, Tafida A, Ogoshi C, Maidaura A, Isiyaku S, William A, Willis R, Bakhtiari A, Olobio N, Solomon AW, & for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachoma and water and sanitation coverage in four local government areas (LGAs) of Jigawa State, Nigeria: Birnin Kudu, Buji, Dutse and Kiyawa.

Methodology: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in each LGA using Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols. From each LGA, 25 villages were selected using probability-proportional-to-population size sampling; in each village, 25 households were selected using the random walk technique. All residents aged ≥1 year in selected households were examined by GTMP-certified graders for trachomatous inflammation – follicular (TF) and trichiasis, defined according to the WHO simplified trachoma grading scheme definitions. Water, sanitation and hygiene data were also collected through questioning and direct observation.

Results: In 2458 households of four LGAs, 10,669 residents were enumerated. A total of 9779 people (92% of residents) were examined, with slightly more females examined (5012; 51%) than men. In children aged 1–9 years, the age-adjusted prevalence of TF ranged from 5.1% (95% CI 2.5–9.0%) in Birnin Kudu to 12.8% (95% CI 7.6–19.4%) in Kiyawa, while the age- and gender-adjusted trichiasis prevalence in persons aged ≥15 years ranged from 1.9% (95% CI 1.4–2.5%) in Birnin Kudu to 3.1% (95% CI 2.2–4.0) in Dutse. Access to improved water sources was above 80% in all LGAs surveyed but access to improved sanitation facilities was low, ranging from 23% in Buji to 50% in Kiyawa.

Conclusion: Trachoma is a public health problem in all four LGAs surveyed. The full SAFE strategy needs to be implemented to achieve trachoma elimination.