Prevalence of and risk factors for trachoma in Kwara state, Nigeria: Results of eight population-based surveys from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

31 Dec 2018
Alada JJ, Mpyet C, Florea VV, Boisson S, Willis R, Muhammad N, Bakhtiari A, Adamu MD, Pavluck AL, Umar MM, Isiyaku S, William A, Oyinloye FOP, Olobio N, Solomon AW, & for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for trachoma in selected local government areas (LGAs) of Kwara State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in eight LGAs of Kwara State using Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols. In each LGA, 25 villages were selected using probability-proportional-to-size sampling; 25 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. All residents of selected households aged ≥1 year were examined by GTMP-certified graders for trachomatous inflammation—follicular (TF) and trichiasis using the simplified trachoma grading scheme. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) data were also collected.

Results: A total of 28,506 residents were enumerated in 4769 households across the eight LGAs. TF prevalence in children aged 1–9 years ranged from 0.2% (95% CI 0.0–0.3%) to 1.3% (95% CI 0.7–2.1%), while trichiasis prevalence in persons ≥15 years was <0.2% in each LGA. Access to improved water source was the lowest in Edu (62%), while access to improved sanitation facilities was the lowest in Asa (6%) and the highest in Ilorin East (64%). Children aged 1–4 years had 0.63 (95% CI 0.40–0.99) times lower odds of having TF compared to children aged 5–9 years. Children in households with ≥5 resident 1–9-year-old children had 1.63 (95% CI 1.02–2.60) times greater odds of having TF compared to those in households with <5 resident children.

Conclusion: Trachoma is not a public health problem in Kwara State. Provision of adequate water and sanitation services should be a priority here, as a foundation for the health of the population.